--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Copyright 2021-2022 Federico Galetto
--
-- This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
-- the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
-- Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
-- version.
--
-- This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-- ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
-- FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
-- details.
--
-- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
-- this program. If not, see .
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
newPackage(
"BettiCharacters",
Version => "2.0",
Date => "July 26, 2022",
AuxiliaryFiles => false,
Authors => {{Name => "Federico Galetto",
Email => "galetto.federico@gmail.com",
HomePage => "http://math.galetto.org"}},
Headline => "finite group characters on free resolutions and graded modules",
PackageImports => {"SimpleDoc"},
DebuggingMode => false
)
export {
"action",
"Action",
"ActionOnComplex",
"ActionOnGradedModule",
"actors",
"character",
"characterTable",
"Character",
"CharacterDecomposition",
"CharacterTable",
"decomposeCharacter",
"inverseRingActors",
"labels",
"Labels",
"numActors",
"ringActors",
"Sub",
"symmetricGroupActors",
"symmetricGroupTable"
}
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Types
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Character = new Type of HashTable
CharacterTable = new Type of HashTable
CharacterDecomposition = new Type of HashTable
Action = new Type of HashTable
ActionOnComplex = new Type of Action
ActionOnGradedModule = new Type of Action
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Characters and character tables -----------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- method for returning characters of various action types
character = method(TypicalValue=>Character)
-- construct a finite dimensional character by hand
-- INPUT:
-- 1) polynomial ring (dictates coefficients and degrees)
-- 2) integer: character length (or number of actors)
-- 3) hash table for raw character: (homdeg,deg) => character matrix
character(PolynomialRing,ZZ,HashTable) := Character => (R,cl,H) -> (
-- check first argument is a polynomial ring over a field
if not isField coefficientRing R then (
error "character: expected polynomial ring over a field";
);
-- check keys are in the right format
k := keys H;
if any(k, i -> class i =!= Sequence or #i != 2 or
class i#0 =!= ZZ or class i#1 =!= List) then (
error "character: expected keys of the form (ZZ,List)";
);
-- check degree vectors are allowed
dl := degreeLength R;
degs := apply(k,last);
if any(degs, i -> #i != dl or any(i, j -> class j =!= ZZ)) then (
error "character: expected integer degree vectors of length "
| toString(dl);
);
-- check character vectors are allowed
v := values H;
if any(v, i -> numColumns i != cl or class i =!= Matrix) then (
error "character: expected characters to be one-row matrices with "
| toString(cl) | " columns";
);
-- move character values into given ring
H2 := try applyValues(H, v -> promote(v,R)) else (
error "character: could not promote characters to given ring";
);
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol numActors) => cl,
(symbol characters) => H2,
}
)
-- direct sum of characters
-- modeled after code in Macaulay2/Core/matrix.m2
Character ++ Character := Character => directSum
directSum Character := c -> Character.directSum (1 : c)
Character.directSum = args -> (
-- check ring is the same for all summands
R := (args#0).ring;
if any(args, c -> c.ring =!= R)
then error "directSum: expected characters all over the same ring";
-- check character length is the same for all summands
cl := (args#0).numActors;
if any(args, c -> c.numActors != cl)
then error "directSum: expected characters all of the same length";
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol numActors) => cl,
-- add raw characters
(symbol characters) => fold( (c1,c2) -> merge(c1,c2,plus),
apply(args, c -> c.characters) ),
}
)
-- tensor product of characters (auxiliary functions)
-- function to add sequences (homological,internal) degrees
addDegrees = (d1,d2) -> apply(d1,d2,plus)
-- function to multiply character matrices (Hadamard product)
multiplyCharacters = (c1,c2) -> (
e1 := flatten entries c1;
e2 := flatten entries c2;
m := apply(e1,e2,times);
matrix{m}
)
-- tensor product of characters
-- modeled after directSum, but only works for two characters
Character ** Character := Character => tensor
tensor(Character,Character) := Character => {} >> opts -> (c1,c2) -> (
-- check ring is the same for all factors
R := c1.ring;
if (c2.ring =!= R)
then error "tensor: expected characters all over the same ring";
-- check character length is the same for all summands
cl := c1.numActors;
if (c2.numActors != cl)
then error "tensor: expected characters all of the same length";
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol numActors) => cl,
-- multiply raw characters
(symbol characters) => combine(c1.characters,c2.characters,
addDegrees,multiplyCharacters,plus)
}
)
-- shift homological degree of characters
Character Array := Character => (C,A) -> (
if # A =!= 1 then error "Character Array: expected array of length 1";
n := A#0;
if not instance(n,ZZ) then error "Character Array: expected an integer";
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => C.ring,
(symbol numActors) => C.numActors,
-- homological shift raw characters
(symbol characters) => applyKeys(C.characters,
k -> (k#0 - n, k#1))
}
)
-- character dual
-- borrowing default options from alexander dual method
alexopts = {Strategy=>0};
-- character of dual/contragredient representation with conjugation
dual(Character,RingMap) := Character => alexopts >> o -> (c,phi) -> (
-- check characteristic
R := c.ring;
if char(R) != 0 then (
error "dual: use permutation constructor in positive characteristic";
);
-- check conjugation map
F := coefficientRing R;
if (source phi =!= F or target phi =!= F or phi^2 =!= id_F) then (
error "dual: expected an order 2 automorphism of the coefficient field";
);
-- error if characters cannot be lifted to coefficient field
H := try applyValues(c.characters, v -> lift(v,F)) else (
error "dual: could not lift characters to coefficient field";
);
-- conjugation map to the polynomial ring
Phi := map(R,F) * phi;
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol numActors) => c.numActors,
(symbol characters) => applyPairs(H,
(k,v) -> ( apply(k,minus), Phi v )
)
}
)
-- character of dual/contragredient representation without conjugation
dual(Character,List) := Character => alexopts >> o -> (c,perm) -> (
n := c.numActors;
if #perm != n then (
error "dual: expected permutation size to match character length";
);
-- check permutation has the right entries
if set perm =!= set(1..n) then (
error "dual: expected a permutation of {1,..," | toString(n) | "}";
);
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => c.ring,
(symbol numActors) => n,
(symbol characters) => applyPairs(c.characters,
(k,v) -> ( apply(k,minus), v_(apply(perm, i -> i-1)) )
)
}
)
-- method to construct character tables
characterTable = method(TypicalValue=>CharacterTable,Options=>{Labels => {}});
-- character table constructor using conjugation
-- INPUT:
-- 1) list of conjugacy class sizes
-- 2) matrix of irreducible character values
-- 3) ring over which to construct the table
-- 4) ring map, conjugation of coefficients
-- OPTIONAL: list of labels for irreducible characters
characterTable(List,Matrix,PolynomialRing,RingMap) := CharacterTable =>
o -> (conjSize,charTable,R,phi) -> (
-- check characteristic
if char(R) != 0 then (
error "characterTable: use permutation constructor in positive characteristic";
);
n := #conjSize;
-- check all arguments have the right size
if numRows charTable != n or numColumns charTable != n then (
error "characterTable: expected matrix size to match number of conjugacy classes";
);
-- promote character matrix to R
X := try promote(charTable,R) else (
error "characterTable: could not promote character table to given ring";
);
-- check conjugation map
F := coefficientRing R;
if (source phi =!= F or target phi =!= F or phi^2 =!= id_F) then (
error "characterTable: expected an order 2 automorphism of the coefficient ring";
);
-- check orthogonality relations
ordG := sum conjSize;
C := diagonalMatrix(R,conjSize);
Phi := map(R,F) * phi;
m := C*transpose(Phi charTable);
-- if x is a character in a one-row matrix, then x*m is the one-row matrix
-- containing the inner products of x with the irreducible characters
if X*m != ordG*map(R^n) then (
error "characterTable: orthogonality relations not satisfied";
);
-- check user labels or create default ones
if o.Labels == {} then (
l := for i to n-1 list "X"|toString(i);
) else (
if #o.Labels != n then (
error "characterTable: expected " | toString(n) | " labels";
);
if any(o.Labels, i -> class i =!= String and class i =!= Net) then (
error "characterTable: expected labels to be strings (or nets)";
);
l = o.Labels;
);
new CharacterTable from {
(symbol numActors) => #conjSize,
(symbol size) => conjSize,
(symbol table) => X,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol matrix) => m,
(symbol labels) => l,
}
)
-- character table constructor without conjugation
-- INPUT:
-- 1) list of conjugacy class sizes
-- 2) matrix of irreducible character values
-- 3) ring over which to construct the table
-- 4) list, permutation of conjugacy class inverses
-- OPTIONAL: list of labels for irreducible characters
characterTable(List,Matrix,PolynomialRing,List) := CharacterTable =>
o -> (conjSize,charTable,R,perm) -> (
n := #conjSize;
-- check all arguments have the right size
if numRows charTable != n or numColumns charTable != n then (
error "characterTable: expected matrix size to match number of conjugacy classes";
);
if #perm != n then (
error "characterTable: expected permutation size to match number of conjugacy classes";
);
-- promote character matrix to R
X := try promote(charTable,R) else (
error "characterTable: could not promote character table to given ring";
);
-- check permutation has the right entries
if set perm =!= set(1..n) then (
error "characterTable: expected a permutation of {1,..," | toString(n) | "}";
);
-- check characteristic
ordG := sum conjSize;
if ordG % char(R) == 0 then (
error "characterTable: characteristic divides order of the group";
);
-- check orthogonality relations
C := diagonalMatrix(R,conjSize);
P := map(R^n)_(apply(perm, i -> i-1));
m := C*transpose(X*P);
-- if x is a character in a one-row matrix, then x*m is the one-row matrix
-- containing the inner products of x with the irreducible characters
if X*m != ordG*map(R^n) then (
error "characterTable: orthogonality relations not satisfied";
);
-- check user labels or create default ones
if o.Labels == {} then (
l := for i to n-1 list "X"|toString(i);
) else (
if #o.Labels != n then (
error "characterTable: expected " | toString(n) | " labels";
);
if any(o.Labels, i -> class i =!= String and class i =!= Net) then (
error "characterTable: expected labels to be strings (or nets)";
);
l = o.Labels;
);
new CharacterTable from {
(symbol numActors) => #conjSize,
(symbol size) => conjSize,
(symbol table) => X,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol matrix) => m,
(symbol labels) => l,
}
)
-- new method for character decomposition
decomposeCharacter = method(TypicalValue=>CharacterDecomposition);
-- decompose a character against a character table
decomposeCharacter(Character,CharacterTable) :=
CharacterDecomposition => (C,T) -> (
-- check character and table are over same ring
R := C.ring;
if T.ring =!= R then (
error "decomposeCharacter: expected character and table over the same ring";
);
-- check number of actors is the same
if C.numActors != T.numActors then (
error "decomposeCharacter: character length does not match table";
);
ord := sum T.size;
-- create decomposition hash table
D := applyValues(C.characters, char -> 1/ord*char*T.matrix);
-- find non zero columns of table for printing
M := matrix apply(values D, m -> flatten entries m);
p := positions(toList(0..numColumns M - 1), i -> M_i != 0*M_0);
new CharacterDecomposition from {
(symbol numActors) => C.numActors,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol labels) => T.labels,
(symbol decompose) => D,
(symbol positions) => p
}
)
-- shortcut for character decomposition
Character / CharacterTable := CharacterDecomposition => decomposeCharacter
-- recreate a character from decomposition
character(CharacterDecomposition,CharacterTable) :=
Character => (D,T) -> (
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => D.ring,
(symbol numActors) => D.numActors,
(symbol characters) => applyValues(D.decompose, i -> i*T.table),
}
)
-- shortcut to recreate character from decomposition
CharacterDecomposition * CharacterTable := Character => character
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Actions on complexes and characters of complexes ------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- constructor for action on resolutions and modules
-- optional argument Sub=>true means ring actors are passed
-- as one-row matrices of substitutions, Sub=>false means
-- ring actors are passed as matrices
action = method(TypicalValue=>Action,Options=>{Sub=>true})
-- constructor for action on resolutions
-- INPUT:
-- 1) a resolution
-- 2) a list of actors on the ring variables
-- 3) a list of actors on the i-th module of the resolution
-- 4) homological index i
action(ChainComplex,List,List,ZZ):=ActionOnComplex=>op->(C,l,l0,i) -> (
--check C is a homogeneous min free res over a poly ring over a field
R := ring C;
if not isPolynomialRing R then (
error "action: expected a complex over a polynomial ring";
);
if not isField coefficientRing R then (
error "action: expected coefficients in a field";
);
if not all(length C,i -> isFreeModule C_(i+min(C))) then (
error "action: expected a complex of free modules";
);
if not isHomogeneous C then (
error "action: complex is not homogeneous";
);
--if user passes handcrafted complex give warning message
if not C.?Resolution then (
print "";
print "Warning: complex is not a resolution computed by M2.";
print "This could lead to errors or meaningless results.";
);
--check the matrix of the action on the variables has right size
n := dim R;
if not all(l,g->numColumns(g)==n) then (
error "action: ring actor matrix has wrong number of columns";
);
if op.Sub then (
if not all(l,g->numRows(g)==1) then (
error "action: expected ring actor matrix to be a one-row substitution matrix";
);
--convert variable substitutions to matrices
l=apply(l,g->(vars R)\\lift(g,R));
) else (
--if ring actors are matrices they must be square
if not all(l,g->numRows(g)==n) then (
error "action: ring actor matrix has wrong number of rows";
);
--lift action matrices to R for uniformity with
--input as substitutions
l=apply(l,g->promote(g,R));
);
--check list of group elements has same length
if #l != #l0 then (
error "action: lists of actors must have equal length";
);
--check size of module actors matches rank of starting module
r := rank C_i;
if not all(l0,g->numColumns(g)==r and numRows(g)==r) then (
error "action: module actor matrix has wrong number of rows or columns";
);
--store everything into a hash table
new ActionOnComplex from {
cache => new CacheTable from {
(symbol actors,i) => apply(l0,g->map(C_i,C_i,g))
},
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol target) => C,
(symbol numActors) => #l,
(symbol ringActors) => l,
(symbol inverseRingActors) => apply(l,inverse),
(symbol actors) => apply(l0,g->map(C_i,C_i,g)),
}
)
-- shortcut constructor for resolutions of quotient rings
-- actors on generator are assumed to be trivial
action(ChainComplex,List) := ActionOnComplex => op -> (C,l) -> (
R := ring C;
l0 := toList(#l:(id_(R^1)));
action(C,l,l0,min C,Sub=>op.Sub)
)
-- returns number of actors
numActors = method(TypicalValue=>ZZ)
numActors(Action) := ZZ => A -> A.numActors
-- returns action on ring variables
-- Sub=>true returns one-row substitution matrices
-- Sub=>false returns square matrices
ringActors = method(TypicalValue=>List,Options=>{Sub=>true})
ringActors(Action) := List => op -> A -> (
if op.Sub then apply(A.ringActors,g->(vars ring A)*g)
else A.ringActors
)
-- returns the inverses of the actors on ring variables
-- same options as ringActors
inverseRingActors = method(TypicalValue=>List,Options=>{Sub=>true})
inverseRingActors(Action) := List => op -> A -> (
if op.Sub then apply(A.inverseRingActors,g->(vars ring A)*g)
else A.inverseRingActors
)
-- returns various group actors
actors = method(TypicalValue=>List)
-- returns actors passed by user when constructing the action
actors(Action) := List => A -> A.actors
-- returns actors on resolution in a given homological degree
-- if homological degree is not the one passed by user,
-- the actors are computed and stored
actors(ActionOnComplex,ZZ) := List => (A,i) -> (
-- homological degrees where action is already cached
places := apply(keys A.cache, k -> k#1);
C := target A;
if zero(C_i) then return toList(numActors(A):map(C_i));
if i > max places then (
-- function for actors of A in hom degree i
f := A -> apply(inverseRingActors A,actors(A,i-1),
-- given a map of free modules C.dd_i : F <-- F',
-- the inverse group action on the ring (as substitution)
-- and the group action on F, computes the group action on F'
(gInv,g0) -> sub(C.dd_i,gInv)\\(g0*C.dd_i)
);
-- make cache function from f and run it on A
((cacheValue (symbol actors,i)) f) A
) else (
-- function for actors of A in hom degree i
f = A -> apply(inverseRingActors A,actors(A,i+1), (gInv,g0) ->
-- given a map of free modules C.dd_i : F <-- F',
-- the inverse group action on the ring (as substitution)
-- and the group action on F', computes the group action on F
-- it is necessary to transpose because we need a left factorization
-- but M2's command // always produces a right factorization
transpose(transpose(C.dd_(i+1))\\transpose(sub(C.dd_(i+1),gInv)*g0))
);
-- make cache function from f and run it on A
((cacheValue (symbol actors,i)) f) A
)
)
-- return the character of one free module of a resolution
-- in a given homological degree
character(ActionOnComplex,ZZ) := Character => (A,i) -> (
-- if complex is zero in hom degree i, return empty character
if zero (target A)_i then (
return new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => ring A,
(symbol numActors) => numActors A,
(symbol characters) => hashTable {},
};
);
-- function for character of A in hom degree i
f := A -> (
-- separate degrees of i-th free module
degs := hashTable apply(unique degrees (target A)_i, d ->
(d,positions(degrees (target A)_i,i->i==d))
);
-- create raw character from actors
H := applyPairs(degs,
(d,indx) -> ((i,d),
matrix{apply(actors(A,i), g -> trace g_indx^indx)}
)
);
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => ring A,
(symbol numActors) => numActors A,
(symbol characters) => H,
}
);
-- make cache function from f and run it on A
((cacheValue (symbol character,i)) f) A
)
-- return characters of all free modules in a resolution
-- by repeatedly using previous function
character ActionOnComplex := Character => A -> (
C := target A;
directSum for i from min(C) to min(C)+length(C) list character(A,i)
)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Actions on modules and characters of modules ----------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- constructor for action on various kinds of graded modules
-- INPUT:
-- 1) a graded module (polynomial ring or quotient, module, ideal)
-- 2) a list of actors on the ring variables
-- 3) a list of actors on the generators of the ambient free module
action(PolynomialRing,List,List) :=
action(QuotientRing,List,List) :=
action(Ideal,List,List) :=
action(Module,List,List):=ActionOnGradedModule=>op->(M,l,l0) -> (
-- check M is graded over a poly ring over a field
-- the way to get the ring depends on the class of M
if instance(M,Ring) then (
R := ambient M;
) else (
R = ring M;
);
if not isPolynomialRing R then (
error "action: expected a module/ideal/quotient over a polynomial ring";
);
if not isField coefficientRing R then (
error "action: expected coefficients in a field";
);
if not isHomogeneous M then (
error "action: module/ideal/quotient is not graded";
);
--check matrix of action on variables has right size
n := dim R;
if not all(l,g->numColumns(g)==n) then (
error "action: ring actor matrix has wrong number of columns";
);
if op.Sub then (
if not all(l,g->numRows(g)==1) then (
error "action: expected ring actor matrix to be a one-row substitution matrix";
);
--convert variable substitutions to matrices
l=apply(l,g->(vars R)\\lift(g,R));
) else (
--if ring actors are matrices they must be square
if not all(l,g->numRows(g)==n) then (
error "action: ring actor matrix has wrong number of rows";
);
--lift action matrices to R for uniformity with
--input as substitutions
l=apply(l,g->promote(g,R));
);
--check list of group elements has same length
if #l != #l0 then (
error "action: lists of actors must have equal length";
);
--check size of module actors matches rank of ambient module
if instance(M,Module) then (
F := ambient M;
) else ( F = R^1; );
r := rank F;
if not all(l0,g->numColumns(g)==r and numRows(g)==r) then (
error "action: module actor matrix has wrong number of rows or columns";
);
--turn input object into a module M'
if instance(M,QuotientRing) then (
M' := coker presentation M;
) else if instance(M,Module) then (
M' = M;
) else (
M' = module M;
);
--store everything into a hash table
new ActionOnGradedModule from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol target) => M,
(symbol numActors) => #l,
(symbol ringActors) => l,
(symbol inverseRingActors) => apply(l,inverse),
(symbol actors) => apply(l0,g->map(F,F,g)),
(symbol module) => M',
(symbol relations) => image relations M',
}
)
-- shortcut constructor when actors on generator are trivial
action(PolynomialRing,List) :=
action(QuotientRing,List) :=
action(Ideal,List) :=
action(Module,List) := ActionOnGradedModule => op -> (M,l) -> (
if instance(M,Module) then (
l0 := toList(#l:(id_(ambient M)));
) else if instance(M,Ideal) then (
l0 = toList(#l:(id_(ambient module M)));
) else (
l0 = toList(#l:(id_(module ambient M)));
);
action(M,l,l0,Sub=>op.Sub)
)
-- returns actors on component of given multidegree
-- the actors are computed and stored
actors(ActionOnGradedModule,List) := List => (A,d) -> (
M := A.module;
-- get basis in degree d as map of free modules
-- how to get this depends on the class of M
b := ambient basis(d,M);
if zero b then return toList(numActors(A):map(source b));
-- function for actors of A in degree d
f := A -> apply(ringActors A,actors A, (g,g0) -> (
--g0*b acts on the basis of the ambient module
--sub(-,g) acts on the polynomial coefficients
--result must be reduced against module relations
--then factored by original basis to get action matrix
(sub(g0*b,g) % A.relations) // b
)
);
-- make cache function from f and run it on A
((cacheValue (symbol actors,d)) f) A
)
-- returns actors on component of given degree
actors(ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ) := List => (A,d) -> actors(A,{d})
-- return character of component of given multidegree
character(ActionOnGradedModule,List) := Character => (A,d) -> (
acts := actors(A,d);
if all(acts,zero) then (
return new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => ring A,
(symbol numActors) => numActors A,
(symbol characters) => hashTable {},
};
);
-- function for character of A in degree d
f := A -> (
new Character from {
cache => new CacheTable,
(symbol ring) => ring A,
(symbol numActors) => numActors A,
(symbol characters) => hashTable {(0,d) => matrix{apply(acts, trace)}},
}
);
-- make cache function from f and run it on A
((cacheValue (symbol character,d)) f) A
)
-- return character of component of given degree
character(ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ) := Character => (A,d) -> (
character(A,{d})
)
-- return character of components in a range of degrees
character(ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ,ZZ) := Character => (A,lo,hi) -> (
if not all(gens ring A, v->(degree v)=={1}) then (
error "character: expected a ZZ-graded polynomial ring";
);
directSum for d from lo to hi list character(A,d)
)
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Specialized functions for symmetric groups -----------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-- take r boxes from partition mu along border
-- unexported auxiliary function for Murnaghan-Nakayama
strip := (mu,r) -> (
-- if one row, strip r boxes
if #mu == 1 then return {mu_0 - r};
-- if possible, strip r boxes in 1st row
d := mu_0 - mu_1;
if d >= r then (
return {mu_0 - r} | drop(mu,1);
);
-- else, remove d+1 boxes and iterate
{mu_0-d-1} | strip(drop(mu,1),r-d-1)
)
-- irreducible Sn character chi^lambda
-- evaluated at conjugacy class of cycle type rho
-- unexported
murnaghanNakayama := (lambda,rho) -> (
-- if both empty, character is 1
if lambda == {} and rho == {} then return 1;
r := rho#0;
-- check if border strip fits ending at each row
borderStrips := select(
-- for all c remove first c parts, check if strip fits in the rest
for c to #lambda-1 list (take(lambda,c) | strip(drop(lambda,c),r)),
-- function that checks if list is a partition (0 allowed)
mu -> (
-- check no negative parts
if any(mu, i -> i<0) then return false;
-- check non increasing
for i to #mu-2 do (
if mu_i < mu_(i+1) then return false;
);
true
)
);
-- find border strip height
heights := apply(borderStrips,
bs -> number(lambda - bs, i -> i>0) - 1);
-- recursive computation
rho' := drop(rho,1);
sum(borderStrips,heights, (bs,h) ->
(-1)^h * murnaghanNakayama(delete(0,bs),rho')
)
)
-- speed up computation by caching values
murnaghanNakayama = memoize murnaghanNakayama
-- symmetric group character table
symmetricGroupTable = method(TypicalValue=>CharacterTable);
symmetricGroupTable PolynomialRing := R -> (
-- check argument is a polynomial ring over a field
if not isField coefficientRing R then (
error "symmetricGroupTable: expected polynomial ring over a field";
);
-- check number of variables
n := dim R;
if n < 1 then (
error "symmetricGroupTable: expected a positive number of variables";
);
-- check characteristic
if n! % (char R) == 0 then (
error ("symmetricGroupTable: expected characteristic not dividing " | toString(n) | "!");
);
-- list partitions
P := apply(partitions n, toList);
-- compute table using Murnaghan-Nakayama
-- uses murnaghanNakayama unexported function with
-- code in BettiCharacters.m2 immediately before this method
X := matrix(R, table(P,P,murnaghanNakayama));
-- compute size of conjugacy classes
conjSize := apply(P/tally,
t -> n! / product apply(pairs t, (k,v) -> k^v*v! )
);
-- matrix for inner product
m := diagonalMatrix(R,conjSize)*transpose(X);
new CharacterTable from {
(symbol numActors) => #P,
(symbol size) => conjSize,
(symbol table) => X,
(symbol ring) => R,
(symbol matrix) => m,
-- compact partition notation used for symmetric group labels
(symbol labels) => apply(P, p -> (
t := tally toList p;
pows := apply(rsort keys t, k -> net Power(k,t#k));
commas := #pows-1:net(",");
net("(")|horizontalJoin mingle(pows,commas)|net(")")
)
)
}
)
-- symmetric group variable permutation action
symmetricGroupActors = method();
symmetricGroupActors PolynomialRing := R -> (
-- check argument is a polynomial ring over a field
if not isField coefficientRing R then (
error "symmetricGroupActors: expected polynomial ring over a field";
);
-- check number of variables
n := dim R;
if n < 1 then (
error "symmetricGroupActors: expected a positive number of variables";
);
for p in partitions(n) list (
L := gens R;
g := for u in p list (
l := take(L,u);
L = drop(L,u);
rotate(1,l)
);
matrix { flatten g }
)
)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Overloaded Methods
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- get object acted upon
target(Action) := A -> A.target
-- get polynomial ring acted upon
ring Action := PolynomialRing => A -> A.ring
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Pretty printing of new types -------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-- printing for characters
net Character := c -> (
if c.characters =!= hashTable {} then (
bottom := stack(" ",
stack (horizontalJoin \ apply(sort pairs c.characters,
(k,v) -> (net k, " => ", net v)))
)
) else bottom = null;
stack("Character over "|(net c.ring), bottom)
)
-- printing for character tables
net CharacterTable := T -> (
-- top row of character table
a := {{""} | T.size};
-- body of character table
b := apply(pack(1,T.labels),entries T.table,(i,j)->i|j);
stack("Character table over "|(net T.ring)," ",
netList(a|b,BaseRow=>1,Alignment=>Right,Boxes=>{{1},{1}},HorizontalSpace=>2)
)
)
-- printing character decompositions
net CharacterDecomposition := D -> (
p := D.positions;
-- top row of decomposition table
a := {{""} | D.labels_p };
-- body of decomposition table
b := apply(sort pairs D.decompose,(k,v) -> {k} | (flatten entries v)_p );
stack("Decomposition table"," ",
netList(a|b,BaseRow=>1,Alignment=>Right,Boxes=>{{1},{1}},HorizontalSpace=>2)
)
)
-- printing for Action type
net Action := A -> (
(net class target A)|" with "|(net numActors A)|" actors"
)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Documentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------
beginDocumentation()
doc ///
Node
Key
BettiCharacters
Headline
finite group characters on free resolutions and graded modules
Description
Text
This package contains functions for computing characters
of free resolutions and graded modules equipped with
the action of a finite group.
Let $R$ be a positively graded polynomial ring over a
field $\Bbbk$, and $M$ a finitely generated graded
$R$-module. Suppose $G$ is a finite group whose order
is not divisible by the characteristic of $\Bbbk$.
Assume $G$ acts $\Bbbk$-linearly on $R$ and $M$
by preserving degrees, and distributing over
$R$-multiplication.
If $F_\bullet$ is a minimal free resolution of $M$, and
$\mathfrak{m}$ denotes the maximal ideal generated by the variables
of $R$, then each $F_i / \mathfrak{m}F_i$ is a graded
$G$-representation. We call the
characters of the representations $F_i / \mathfrak{m}F_i$
the {\bf Betti characters} of $M$, since
evaluating them at the identity element of $G$ returns
the usual Betti numbers of $M$.
Moreover, the graded
components of $M$ are also $G$-representations.
This package provides functions to
compute the Betti characters and the characters of
graded components of $M$
based on the algorithms in @HREF("https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsc.2022.02.001","F. Galetto - Finite group characters on free resolutions")@.
The package is designed to
be independent of the group; the user provides matrices for
the group actions and character tables (to decompose
characters into irreducibles).
See the menu below for using this package
to compute some examples from the literature.
@HEADER4 "Version history:"@
@UL {(BOLD "1.0: ", "Initial version. Includes computation of
actions and Betti characters.") ,
(BOLD "2.0: ", "Introduces character tables, decompositions,
and other methods for characters.")
}@
Subnodes
:Defining and computing actions
action
actors
:Characters and related operations
character
"Character operations"
:Character tables and decompositions
characterTable
decomposeCharacter
:Symmetric group actions
symmetricGroupActors
symmetricGroupTable
:Examples from the literature
"BettiCharacters Example 1"
"BettiCharacters Example 2"
"BettiCharacters Example 3"
Node
Key
"Character operations"
Headline
shift, direct sum, dual, and tensor product
Description
Text
The @TO BettiCharacters@ package contains
several functions for working with characters.
See links below for more details.
SeeAlso
(symbol SPACE,Character,Array)
(directSum,Character)
(dual,Character,RingMap)
(tensor,Character,Character)
Node
Key
"BettiCharacters Example 1"
Headline
Specht ideals / subspace arrangements
Description
Text
In this example, we identify the Betti characters of the
Specht ideal associated with the partition (5,2).
The action of the symmetric group on the resolution of
this ideal is described in
@arXiv("2010.06522",
"K. Shibata, K. Yanagawa - Minimal free resolutions of the Specht ideals of shapes (n−2,2) and (d,d,1)")@.
The same ideal is also the ideal of the 6-equals
subspace arrangement in a 7-dimensional affine space.
This point of view is explored in
@HREF("https://doi.org/10.1007/s00220-014-2010-4",
"C. Berkesch, S. Griffeth, S. Sam - Jack polynomials as fractional quantum Hall states and the Betti numbers of the (k+1)-equals ideal")@
where the action of the symmetric group on the resolution
is also described.
We begin by constructing the ideal explicitly.
As an alternative, the ideal can be obtained using the
function @TT "spechtPolynomials"@
provided by the package @TT "SpechtModule"@.
We compute a minimal free resolution and its Betti table.
Example
R=QQ[x_1..x_7]
I1=ideal apply({4,5,6,7}, i -> (x_1-x_2)*(x_3-x_i));
I2=ideal apply(subsets({3,4,5,6,7},2), s -> (x_1-x_(s#0))*(x_2-x_(s#1)));
I=I1+I2
RI=res I
betti RI
Text
Next we set up the group action on the resolution.
The group is the symmetric group on 7 elements.
Its conjugacy classes are determined by cycle types,
which are in bijection with partitions of 7.
Representatives for the conjugacy classes of the symmetric
group acting on a polynomial ring by permuting the
variables can be obtained via @TO symmetricGroupActors@.
Once the action is set up, we compute the Betti characters.
Example
S7 = symmetricGroupActors R
A = action(RI,S7)
elapsedTime c = character A
Text
To make sense of these characters we decompose them
against the character table of the symmetric group,
which can be computed using the function
@TO "symmetricGroupTable"@. The irreducible characters
are indexed by the partitions of 7, which are written
using a compact notation (the exponents indicate how
many times a part is repeated).
Example
T = symmetricGroupTable R
decomposeCharacter(c,T)
Text
As expected from the general theory, we find a single
irreducible representation in each homological degree.
Finally, we can observe the Gorenstein duality of the
resolution and its character. We construct the character
of the sign representation concentrated in homological
degree 0, internal degree 7. Then we dualize the character
of the resolution previously computed, shift its homological
degree by the length of the resolution, and twist it by
the sign character just constructed: the result is the
same as the character of the resolution.
Example
sign = character(R,15,hashTable {(0,{7}) =>
matrix{{1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1}}})
dual(c,id_QQ)[-5] ** sign === c
Text
The second argument in the @TT "dual"@ command is the
restriction of complex conjugation to the field of
definition of the characters.
For more information, see @TO (dual,Character,RingMap)@.
Node
Key
"BettiCharacters Example 2"
Headline
Symbolic powers of star configurations
Description
Text
In this example, we identify the Betti characters of the
third symbolic power of a monomial star configuration.
The action of the symmetric group on the resolution of
this ideal is described in Example 6.5 of
@HREF("https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalgebra.2020.04.037",
"J. Biermann, H. De Alba, F. Galetto, S. Murai, U. Nagel, A. O'Keefe, T. Römer, A. Seceleanu - Betti numbers of symmetric shifted ideals")@,
and belongs to the larger class of symmetric shifted
ideals.
First, we construct the ideal
and compute its minimal free resolution and Betti table.
Example
R=QQ[x_1..x_6]
I=intersect(apply(subsets(gens R,4),x->(ideal x)^3))
RI=res I
betti RI
Text
Next, we set up the group action on the resolution.
The group is the symmetric group on 6 elements.
Its conjugacy classes are determined by cycle types,
which are in bijection with partitions of 6.
Representatives for the conjugacy classes of the symmetric
group acting on a polynomial ring by permuting the
variables can be obtained via @TO symmetricGroupActors@.
After setting up the action, we compute the Betti characters.
Example
S6 = symmetricGroupActors R
A=action(RI,S6)
elapsedTime c=character A
Text
Next, we decompose the characters
against the character table of the symmetric group,
which can be computed using the function
@TO "symmetricGroupTable"@. The irreducible characters
are indexed by the partitions of 6, which are written
using a compact notation (the exponents indicate how
many times a part is repeated).
Example
T = symmetricGroupTable R
decomposeCharacter(c,T)
Text
The description provided in
@HREF("https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalgebra.2020.04.037",
"J. Biermann, H. De Alba, F. Galetto, S. Murai, U. Nagel, A. O'Keefe, T. Römer, A. Seceleanu - Betti numbers of symmetric shifted ideals")@
uses representations induced from products of smaller
symmetric groups. To compare that description with the results
obtained here, one may use the Littlewood-Richardson rule
to decompose induced representations into a direct sum
of irreducibles.
Node
Key
"BettiCharacters Example 3"
Headline
Klein configuration of points
Description
Text
In this example, we identify the Betti characters of the
defining ideal of the Klein configuration of points in the
projective plane and its square.
The defining ideal of the Klein configuration is
explicitly constructed in Proposition 7.3 of
@HREF("https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnx329",
"T. Bauer, S. Di Rocco, B. Harbourne, J. Huizenga, A. Seceleanu, T. Szemberg - Negative Curves on Symmetric Blowups of the Projective Plane, Resurgences, and Waldschmidt Constants")@.
We start by constructing the ideal, its square, and both
their resolutions and Betti tables. In order to later use
characters, we work over the cyclotomic field obtained by
adjoining a primitive 7th root of unity to $\mathbb{Q}$.
Example
kk = toField(QQ[a]/ideal(sum apply(7,i->a^i)))
R = kk[x,y,z]
f4 = x^3*y+y^3*z+z^3*x
H = jacobian transpose jacobian f4
f6 = -1/54*det(H)
I = minors(2,jacobian matrix{{f4,f6}})
RI = res I
betti RI
I2 = I^2;
RI2 = res I2
betti RI2
Text
The unique simple group of order 168 acts as described
in §2.2 of @HREF("https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnx329",
"BDHHSS")@. In particular, the group is generated by the
elements @TT "g"@ of order 7, @TT "h"@ of order 3, and
@TT "i"@ of order 2, and is minimally defined over the
7th cyclotomic field. In addition, we consider the identity,
the inverse of @TT "g"@,
and another element @TT "j"@ of order 4 as representatives
of the conjugacy classes of the group.
The action of the group on the resolution of
both ideals is described in the second proof of
Proposition 8.1.
Example
g = matrix{{a^4,0,0},{0,a^2,0},{0,0,a}}
h = matrix{{0,1,0},{0,0,1},{1,0,0}}
i = (2*a^4+2*a^2+2*a+1)/7 * matrix{
{a-a^6,a^2-a^5,a^4-a^3},
{a^2-a^5,a^4-a^3,a-a^6},
{a^4-a^3,a-a^6,a^2-a^5}
}
j = -1/(2*a^4+2*a^2+2*a+1) * matrix{
{a^5-a^4,1-a^5,1-a^3},
{1-a^5,a^6-a^2,1-a^6},
{1-a^3,1-a^6,a^3-a}
}
G = {id_(R^3),i,h,j,g,inverse g};
Text
We compute the action of this group
on the two resolutions above.
Notice how the group action is passed as a list of square
matrices (instead of one-row substitution matrices as in
@TO "BettiCharacters Example 1"@ and
@TO "BettiCharacters Example 2"@); to enable this,
we set the option @TO Sub@ to @TT "false"@.
Example
A1 = action(RI,G,Sub=>false)
A2 = action(RI2,G,Sub=>false)
elapsedTime a1 = character A1
elapsedTime a2 = character A2
Text
Next we set up the character table of the group
and decompose the Betti characters of the resolutions.
The arguments are: a list with the cardinality of the
conjugacy classes, a matrix with the values of the irreducible
characters, the base polynomial ring, and the complex
conjugation map restricted to the field of coefficients.
See @TO characterTable@ for more details.
Example
s = {1,21,56,42,24,24}
m = matrix{{1,1,1,1,1,1},
{3,-1,0,1,a^4+a^2+a,-a^4-a^2-a-1},
{3,-1,0,1,-a^4-a^2-a-1,a^4+a^2+a},
{6,2,0,0,-1,-1},
{7,-1,1,-1,0,0},
{8,0,-1,0,1,1}};
conj = map(kk,kk,{a^6})
T = characterTable(s,m,R,conj)
a1/T
a2/T
Text
Since @TT "X0"@ is the trivial character,
this computation shows that the
free module in homological degree two in the resolution of the
defining ideal of the Klein configuration is a direct sum
of two trivial representations, one in degree 11 and one in
degree 13. It follows that its second
exterior power is a trivial representation concentrated in
degree 24. As observed in the second
proof of Proposition 8.1 in @HREF("https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnx329",
"BDHHSS")@, the free module in homological degree 3 in the
resolution of the square of the ideal is exactly this
second exterior power (and a trivial representation).
Alternatively, we can compute the symbolic square of the
ideal modulo the ordinary square. The component of degree
21 of this quotient matches the generators of the last
module in the resolution of the ordinary square in degree
24 (by local duality); in
particular, it is a trivial representation. We can verify
this directly.
Example
needsPackage "SymbolicPowers"
Is2 = symbolicPower(I,2);
M = Is2 / I2;
B = action(M,G,Sub=>false)
elapsedTime b = character(B,21)
b/T
Node
Key
Action
Headline
the class of all finite group actions
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Subnodes
ActionOnComplex
ActionOnGradedModule
(net,Action)
(ring,Action)
ringActors
(target,Action)
Node
Key
ActionOnComplex
Headline
the class of all finite group actions on complexes
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Node
Key
ActionOnGradedModule
Headline
the class of all finite group actions on graded modules
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Node
Key
Character
Headline
the class of all characters of finite group representations
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Subnodes
(symbol SPACE,Character,Array)
(directSum,Character)
(dual,Character,RingMap)
(net,Character)
(tensor,Character,Character)
Node
Key
(symbol SPACE,Character,Array)
Headline
homological shift
Description
Text
Shift the homological degrees of a character.
Example
R = QQ[x,y,z]
I = ideal(x*y,x*z,y*z)
RI = res I
S3 = symmetricGroupActors R
A = action(RI,S3)
a = character A
a[-10]
Node
Key
CharacterTable
Headline
the class of all character tables of finite groups
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Subnodes
(net,CharacterTable)
Node
Key
CharacterDecomposition
Headline
the class of all finite group character decompositions
Description
Text
This class is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Subnodes
(net,CharacterDecomposition)
Node
Key
action
Headline
define finite group action
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to set up a finite group action on
a minimal free resolution or graded module.
See the specific use cases for more details.
Subnodes
Action
(action,ChainComplex,List,List,ZZ)
(action,Module,List,List)
Sub
Node
Key
(action,ChainComplex,List,List,ZZ)
(action,ChainComplex,List)
Headline
define finite group action on a resolution
Usage
A=action(C,G)
A=action(C,G,G',i)
Inputs
C:ChainComplex
a minimal free resolution over a polynomial ring @TT "R"@
G:List
of group elements acting on the variables of @TT "R"@
G':List
of group elements acting on a basis of @TT "C_i"@
i:ZZ
a homological degree
Outputs
A:ActionOnComplex
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to define the action of a finite group
on the minimal free resolution of a module over a
polynomial ring with coefficients in a field.
After setting up the action, use the function
@TO character@ to compute the Betti characters.
The input @TT "G"@ is a @TO List@ of group elements
acting on the vector space spanned by the variables
of the ring @TT "R"@. By default, these elements are
passed as one-row substitution matrices as those
accepted by @TO substitute@. One may pass these elements
as square matrices by setting the optional input @TO Sub@
to @TT "false"@. The list @TT "G"@ can contain
arbitrary group elements however, to
obtain a complete representation theoretic description
of the characters, @TT "G"@ should be a list of
representatives of the conjugacy classes of the group.
The example below sets up the action of a symmetric
group on the resolution of a monomial ideal.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. The conjugacy classes of
permutations are determined by their cycle types,
which are in bijection with partitions. In this case,
we consider five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
RI = res I
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
A = action(RI,G)
Text
The group elements acting on the ring can be recovered
using @TO ringActors@, while their inverses can be
recovered using @TO inverseRingActors@.
To recover just the number of group elements,
use @TO numActors@.
Example
ringActors A
inverseRingActors A
numActors A
Text
The simplified version of this function suffices when
dealing with resolutions of quotients of the ring
@TT "R"@ by an ideal as in the previous example.
In this case, the first module in the resolution is
@TT "R"@ and it is assumed that the group acts
trivially on the generator of this first module.
When resolving modules or when more flexibility is
needed, one may use the general version of the function.
In this case, it is necessary to specify a homological
degree @TT "i"@ and a list of group elements acting on
the module @TT "C_i"@. The group elements are passed
as a @TO List@ @TT "G'"@ of matrices written with
respect to the basis of @TT "C_i"@ used by Macaulay2.
Moreover, the group elements in @TT "G'"@ must match
(in number and order) the elements in @TT "G"@.
To illustrate, we set up the action on the resolution
of the ideal in the previous example considered as a
module (as opposed to the resolution of the quotient
by the ideal). In this case, the elements of @TT "G'"@
are the permutation matrices obtained by acting with
elements of @TT "G"@ on the span of the minimal
generators of the ideal. For simplicity, we construct
these matrices by permuting columns of the identity.
Example
M = module I
RM = res M
G' = { (id_(R^6))_{2,4,5,0,1,3},
(id_(R^6))_{2,0,1,4,5,3},
(id_(R^6))_{0,4,3,2,1,5},
(id_(R^6))_{0,2,1,4,3,5},
id_(R^6) }
action(RM,G,G',0)
Text
By changing the last argument, it is possible to
specify the action of the group on any module of the
resolution. For example, suppose we wish to construct
the action of the symmetric group on the resolution
of the canonical module of the quotient in the first
example. In this case, it will be more convenient to
declare a trivial action on the last module of the
resolution rather than figuring out the action on the
first module (i.e., the generators of the canonical
module). This can be achieved as follows.
Example
E = Ext^3(R^1/I,R^{-4})
RE = res E
G'' = toList(5:id_(R^1))
action(RE,G,G'',3)
Caveat
This function determines if the complex @TT "C"@ is a free
resolution computed by Macaulay2. If this is not the case,
then the function produces a warning to inform the user that
later computations (i.e., Betti characters) may fail or
return meaningless results.
Node
Key
(action,Module,List,List)
(action,Module,List)
(action,Ideal,List,List)
(action,Ideal,List)
(action,PolynomialRing,List,List)
(action,PolynomialRing,List)
(action,QuotientRing,List,List)
(action,QuotientRing,List)
Headline
define finite group action on a graded module
Usage
A=action(M,G)
A=action(M,G,G')
Inputs
M:Module
a graded module/ideal/quotient over a polynomial ring @TT "R"@
G:List
of group elements acting on the variables of @TT "R"@
G':List
of group elements acting on the ambient module of @TT "M"@
Outputs
A:ActionOnGradedModule
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to define the action of a finite group
on a graded module over a polynomial ring
with coefficients in a field. This includes also an
ideal in the polynomial ring, a quotient of the
polynomial ring, and the polynomial ring itself.
After setting up the action, use the function
@TO character@ to compute the characters of graded
components.
The input @TT "G"@ is a @TO List@ of group elements
acting on the vector space spanned by the variables
of the ring @TT "R"@. By default, these elements are
passed as one-row substitution matrices as those
accepted by @TO substitute@. One may pass these elements
as square matrices by setting the optional input @TO Sub@
to @TT "false"@. The list @TT "G"@ can contain
arbitrary group elements however, to
obtain a complete representation theoretic description
of the characters, @TT "G"@ should be a list of
representatives of the conjugacy classes of the group.
The example below sets up the action of a symmetric
group on a polynomial ring, a monomial ideal,
and the corresponding quotient.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. The conjugacy classes of
permutations are determined by their cycle types,
which are in bijection with partitions. In this case,
we consider five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
action(R,G)
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
action(I,G)
Q = R/I
A = action(Q,G)
Text
The group elements acting on the ring can be recovered
using @TO ringActors@.
To recover just the number of group elements,
use @TO numActors@.
Example
ringActors A
numActors A
Text
The simplified version of this function assumes that
the group acts trivially on the generator of the
polynomial ring.
When working with a module @TT "M"@, one needs to
declare the action of the group on a basis of the free
ambient module of @TT "M"@.
Unless this action is trivial, it can be specified
using the third argument, a list @TT "G'"@ of matrices
written with respect to the basis of the free ambient
module of @TT "M"@ used by Macaulay2.
Moreover, the group elements in @TT "G'"@ must match
(in number and order) the elements in @TT "G"@.
To illustrate, we set up the action on the canonical
module of the quotient in the previous example.
We obtain the list of group elements @TT "G'"@ for the
canonical module by computing the action on its
resolution.
Example
E = Ext^3(R^1/I,R^{-4})
RE = res E
G'' = toList(5:id_(R^1))
B = action(RE,G,G'',3)
G' = actors(B,0)
action(E,G,G')
Node
Key
actors
(actors,Action)
Headline
group elements of an action
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
When called (without additional arguments) on an object
of type @TO Action@,
this function returns the list of group elements
originally provided by the user to act on
a module or in a given homological
degree of a resolution. Note that these group elements
are assumed to trivial, unless otherwise indicated
when constructing the action.
The user may specify additional arguments to obtain
elements of the group acting in other degrees.
See the specific use cases for more details.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
M = module I
RM = res M
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
G' = { (id_(R^6))_{2,4,5,0,1,3},
(id_(R^6))_{2,0,1,4,5,3},
(id_(R^6))_{0,4,3,2,1,5},
(id_(R^6))_{0,2,1,4,3,5},
id_(R^6) }
A = action(RM,G,G',0)
actors(A)
B = action(M,G)
actors(B)
SeeAlso
action
Subnodes
(actors,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)
(actors,ActionOnGradedModule,List)
inverseRingActors
numActors
Node
Key
(actors,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)
Headline
group elements of action on resolution
Usage
actors(A,i)
Inputs
A:ActionOnComplex
a finite group action on a minimal free resolution
i:ZZ
a homological degree
Outputs
:List
of group elements acting in homological degree @TT "i"@
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
This function returns matrices describing elements of a
finite group acting on a minimal free resolution in a
given homological degree. If the homological degree is
the one where the user originally defined the action,
then the user provided elements are returned.
Otherwise, suitable elements are computed as indicated
in @HREF("https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsc.2022.02.001","F. Galetto - Finite group characters on free resolutions")@.
To illustrate, we compute the action of a
symmetric group on the resolution of a monomial ideal.
The ideal is generated by
all squarefree monomials of degree two in four variables.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. We only consider five
permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111 (since these are enough
to determine the characters of the action).
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
RI = res I
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
A = action(RI,G)
actors(A,0)
actors(A,1)
actors(A,2)
actors(A,3)
Caveat
When applied to a minimal free resolution $F_\bullet$,
this function returns matrices that induce the action of
group elements on the representations $F_i/\mathfrak{m}F_i$, where
$\mathfrak{m}$ is the maximal ideal generated by the variables of the
polynomial ring.
While these matrices often represent the action of the
same group elements on the modules $F_i$ of the resolution,
this is in general not a guarantee.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
(actors,ActionOnGradedModule,List)
(actors,ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ)
Headline
group elements acting on components of a module
Usage
actors(A,d)
Inputs
A:ActionOnGradedModule
a finite group action on a graded module
d:List
a (multi)degree
Outputs
:List
of group elements acting in the given (multi)degree
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
This function returns matrices describing elements of a
finite group acting on the graded component of
(multi)degree @TT "d"@ of a module.
To illustrate, we compute the action of a
symmetric group on the components of a monomial ideal.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. We only consider five
permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111 (since these are enough
to determine the characters of the action).
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
A = action(I,G)
actors(A,1)
actors(A,2)
actors(A,3)
Text
The degree argument can be an integer (in the case of
single graded modules) or a list of integers (in
the case of a multigraded module).
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
character
Headline
compute characters of finite group action
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this method to compute the Betti characters
of a finite group action on a minimal free resolution
or the characters of a finite group action on the
components of a graded module.
See the specific use cases for more details.
All characters are bigraded by homological degree and
internal degree (inherited from the complex or module
they are computed from). Modules are considered to
be concentrated in homological degree zero.
Characters may also be constructed by hand using
@TO (character,PolynomialRing,ZZ,HashTable)@.
Subnodes
Character
(character,ActionOnComplex)
(character,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)
(character,ActionOnGradedModule,List)
(character,PolynomialRing,ZZ,HashTable)
(character,CharacterDecomposition,CharacterTable)
Node
Key
(character,ActionOnComplex)
Headline
compute all Betti characters of minimal free resolution
Usage
character(A)
Inputs
A:ActionOnComplex
a finite group action on a minimal free resolution
Outputs
:Character
Betti characters of the resolution
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to compute all nonzero Betti
characters of a finite group action on a minimal free
resolution.
This function calls @TO (character,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)@
on all nonzero homological degrees and then assembles
the outputs in a hash table indexed by homological
degree.
To illustrate, we compute the Betti characters of a
symmetric group on the resolution of a monomial ideal.
The ideal is the symbolic square of the ideal generated by
all squarefree monomials of degree three in four variables.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. The characters are determined
by five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
J = intersect(apply(subsets(gens R,3),x->(ideal x)^2))
RJ = res J
G = { matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
A = action(RJ,G)
character(A)
Text
See @TO (character,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)@
for more details on this example.
SeeAlso
action
(character,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)
Node
Key
(character,ActionOnComplex,ZZ)
Headline
compute Betti characters of minimal free resolution
Usage
character(A,i)
Inputs
A:ActionOnComplex
a finite group action on a minimal free resolution
i:ZZ
a homological degree
Outputs
:Character
the @TT "i"@-th Betti character of the resolution
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to compute the Betti characters of a
finite group action on a minimal free resolution
in a given homological degree.
More explicitly, let $F_\bullet$ be a minimal free
resolution of a module $M$ over a polynomial ring $R$,
with a compatible action of a finite group $G$.
If $\mathfrak{m}$ denotes the maximal ideal generated by the
variables of $R$, then $F_i/\mathfrak{m}F_i$ is a graded
representation of $G$. We refer to its character as
the $i$-th {\bf Betti character} of $M$ (or a minimal free
resolution of $M$).
Betti characters are computed using Algorithm 1 in
@HREF("https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsc.2022.02.001","F. Galetto - Finite group characters on free resolutions")@.
To illustrate, we compute the Betti characters of a
symmetric group on the resolution of a monomial ideal.
The ideal is the symbolic square of the ideal generated by
all squarefree monomials of degree three in four variables.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. The characters are determined
by five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
J = intersect(apply(subsets(gens R,3),x->(ideal x)^2))
RJ = res J
G = { matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
A = action(RJ,G)
character(A,0)
Text
By construction, the character in homological degree
0 is concentrated in degree 0 and trivial.
Example
character(A,1)
Text
The character in homological degree 1 has two
components. The component of degree 3 is the permutation
representation spanned by the squarefree monomials of
degree 3 (which can be identified with the natural
representation of the symmetric group).
The component of degree 4 is the permutation representation
spanned by the squares of the squarefree monomials of degree
2.
Example
character(A,2)
Text
In homological degree 2, there is a component of degree
4 which is isomorphic to the irreducible standard
representation of the symmetric group.
In degree 5, we find the permutation representation of
the symmetric group on the set of ordered pairs of
distinct elements from 1 to 4.
Example
character(A,3)
Text
Finally, the character in homological degree 3 is
concentrated in degree 6 and corresponds to the direct
sum of the standard representation and the tensor
product of the standard representation and the sign
representation (i.e., the direct sum of the two
irreducible representations of dimension 3).
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
(character,ActionOnGradedModule,List)
(character,ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ)
(character,ActionOnGradedModule,ZZ,ZZ)
Headline
compute characters of graded components of a module
Usage
character(A,d)
character(A,lo,hi)
Inputs
A:ActionOnGradedModule
a finite group action on a graded module
d:List
a (multi)degree
Outputs
:Character
the character of the components of a module in given degrees
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to compute the characters of the
finite group action on the graded components of a
module. The second argument is the (multi)degree of
the desired component. For $\mathbb{Z}$-graded rings,
one may compute characters in a range of degrees by
providing the lowest and highest degrees in the range.
To illustrate, we compute the Betti characters of a
symmetric group on the graded components of a polynomial
ring, a monomial ideal, and their quotient.
The characters are determined
by five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
G = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_4,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1,x_4}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_4,x_3}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3,x_4}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4}} }
Q = R/I
A = action(R,G)
B = action(I,G)
C = action(Q,G)
character(A,0,5)
character(B,0,5)
character(C,0,5)
character(C,6)
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
(character,PolynomialRing,ZZ,HashTable)
Headline
construct a character
Usage
character(R,l,H)
Inputs
R:PolynomialRing
over a field
l:ZZ
character length
H:HashTable
raw character data
Outputs
:Character
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
The @TO character@ method is mainly designed to compute
characters of finite group actions defined via @TO action@.
The user who wishes to define characters by hand
may do so with this particular application of the method.
The first argument is the polynomial ring the character
values will live in; this makes it possible to compare or
combine the hand-constructed character with other
characters over the same ring. The second argument is
the length of the character, i.e., the number of conjugacy
classes of the group whose representations the character
is coming from. The third argument is a hash table
containing the "raw" character data. The hash table
entries are in the format @TT "(i,d) => c"@, where @TT "i"@
is an integer representing homological degree, @TT "d"@
is a list representing the internal (multi)degree, and
@TT "c"@ is a list containing the values of the character
in the given degrees. Note that the values of the character
are elements in the ring given as the first argument.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_3]
regRep = character(R,3, hashTable {
(0,{0}) => matrix{{1,1,1}},
(0,{1}) => matrix{{-1,0,2}},
(0,{2}) => matrix{{-1,0,2}},
(0,{3}) => matrix{{1,-1,1}},
})
I = ideal(x_1+x_2+x_3,x_1*x_2+x_1*x_3+x_2*x_3,x_1*x_2*x_3)
S3 = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3}} }
Q = R/I
A = action(Q,S3)
character(A,0,3) === regRep
Caveat
This constructor implements basic consistency checks, but
it is still be possible to construct objects that are not
actually characters (not even virtual).
SeeAlso
character
Node
Key
(character,CharacterDecomposition,CharacterTable)
(symbol *,CharacterDecomposition,CharacterTable)
Headline
recover character from decomposition
Usage
character(d,T)
d*T
Inputs
d:CharacterDecomposition
T:CharacterTable
Outputs
:Character
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use this function to recover a character from its decomposition
into a linear combination of the irreducible characters
in a character table. The shortcut @TT "d*T"@
is equivalent to the command @TT "character(d,T)"@.
As an example, we construct the character table of the
symmetric group on 3 elements, then use it to decompose
the character of the action of the same symmetric group
permuting the variables of a standard graded polynomial ring.
Example
s = {2,3,1}
M = matrix{{1,1,1},{-1,0,2},{1,-1,1}}
R = QQ[x_1..x_3]
P = {1,2,3}
T = characterTable(s,M,R,P)
acts = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1}},matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3}},matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3}}}
A = action(R,acts)
c = character(A,0,10)
d = c/T
c === d*T
SeeAlso
characterTable
decomposeCharacter
Node
Key
characterTable
(characterTable,List,Matrix,PolynomialRing,RingMap)
(characterTable,List,Matrix,PolynomialRing,List)
Headline
construct a character table
Usage
T = characterTable(s,M,R,conj)
T = characterTable(s,M,R,perm)
Inputs
s:List
of conjugacy class sizes
M:Matrix
with character table entries
R:PolynomialRing
over a field
conj:RingMap
conjugation in coefficient field
perm:List
permutation of conjugacy classes
Outputs
T:CharacterTable
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use the @TO characterTable@ method to construct
the character table of a finite group.
The first argument is a list containing the cardinalities
of the conjugacy classes of the group.
The second argument is a square matrix whose entry in
row $i$ and column $j$ is the value of the $i$-th
irreducible character of the group at an element
of the $j$-th conjugacy class.
The third argument is a polynomial ring over a field,
the same ring over which the modules and resolutions
are defined whose characters are to be decomposed
against the character table. Note that the matrix in
the second argument must be liftable to this ring.
Assuming the polynomial ring in the third argument
has a coefficient field @TT "F"@ which is a subfield of the
complex numbers, then the fourth argument is the
restriction of complex conjugation to @TT "F"@.
For example, we construct the character table of the
alternating group $A_4$ considered as a subgroup of the
symmetric group $S_4$. The conjugacy classes are
represented by the identity, and the permutations
$(12)(34)$, $(123)$, and $(132)$, in cycle notation.
These conjugacy classes have cardinalities: 1, 3, 4, 4.
The irreducible characters can be constructed over the
field $\mathbb{Q}[w]$, where $w$ is a primitive third
root of unity. Complex conjugation restricts to
$\mathbb{Q}[w]$ by sending $w$ to $w^2$.
Example
F = toField(QQ[w]/ideal(1+w+w^2))
s = {1,3,4,4}
M = matrix{{1,1,1,1},{1,1,w,w^2},{1,1,w^2,w},{3,-1,0,0}}
R = F[x_1..x_4]
conj = map(F,F,{w^2})
T = characterTable(s,M,R,conj)
Text
By default, irreducible characters in a character table
are labeled as @TT "X0, X1, ..."@, etc.
The user may pass custom labels in a list using
the option @TO Labels@.
When working over a splitting field for a finite group
$G$ in the non modular case, the irreducible characters
of $G$ form an orthonormal basis for the space of class
functions on $G$ with the scalar product given by
$$\langle \chi_1, \chi_2 \rangle = \frac{1}{|G|}
\sum_{g\in G} \chi_1 (g) \chi_2 (g^{-1}).$$
Over the complex numbers, the second factor in the summation
is equal to $\overline{\chi_2 (g)}$. Thus the scalar
product can be computed using the conjugation function
provided by the user.
If working over coefficient fields of positive characteristic
or if one wishes to avoid defining conjugation, one may replace
the fourth argument by a list containing a permutation
$\pi$ of the integers $1,\dots,r$, where
$r$ is the number of conjugacy classes of the group.
The permutation $\pi$ is defined as follows:
if $g$ is an element of the $j$-th conjugacy class,
then $g^{-1}$ is an element of the $\pi (j)$-th class.
In the case of $A_4$, the identity and $(12)(34)$ are
their own inverses, while $(123)^{-1} = (132)$.
Therefore the permutation $\pi$ is the transposition
exchanging 3 and 4. Hence the character table of $A_4$
may also be constructed as follows, with $\pi$
represented in one-line notation by a list passed
as the fourth argument.
Example
perm = {1,2,4,3}
T' = characterTable(s,M,R,perm)
T' === T
Caveat
This constructor checks orthonormality of the table
matrix under the standard scalar product of characters.
However, it may still be possible to construct a table
that is not an actual character table. Note also that
there are no further checks when using a character table
to decompose characters.
SeeAlso
decomposeCharacter
Subnodes
CharacterTable
labels
Node
Key
decomposeCharacter
(decomposeCharacter,Character,CharacterTable)
(symbol /,Character,CharacterTable)
Headline
decompose a character into irreducible characters
Usage
decomposeCharacter(c,T)
c/T
Inputs
c:Character
of a finite group
T:CharacterTable
of the same finite group
Outputs
:CharacterDecomposition
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Use the @TO decomposeCharacter@ method to decompose
a character into a linear combination of irreducible
characters in a character table. The shortcut @TT "c/T"@
is equivalent to the command @TT "decomposeCharacter(c,T)"@.
As an example, we construct the character table of the
symmetric group on 3 elements, then use it to decompose
the character of the action of the same symmetric group
permuting the variables of a standard graded polynomial ring.
Example
s = {2,3,1}
M = matrix{{1,1,1},{-1,0,2},{1,-1,1}}
R = QQ[x_1..x_3]
P = {1,2,3}
T = characterTable(s,M,R,P)
acts = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1}},matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3}},matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3}}}
A = action(R,acts)
c = character(A,0,10)
decomposeCharacter(c,T)
Text
The results are shown in a table whose rows are indexed
by pairs of homological and internal degrees, and whose
columns are labeled by the irreducible characters.
By default, irreducible characters in a character table
are labeled as @TT "X0, X1, ..."@, etc, and the same
labeling is inherited by the character decompsoition.
The user may pass custom labels in a list using
the option @TO Labels@ when constructing the character
table.
SeeAlso
characterTable
Subnodes
CharacterDecomposition
Node
Key
(directSum,Character)
(symbol ++,Character,Character)
Headline
direct sum of characters
Usage
character(c)
character(c1,c2,...)
Inputs
c:Character
or sequence of characters
Outputs
:Character
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the direct sum of the input characters.
The operator @TT "++"@ may be used for the same purpose.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_3]
I = ideal(x_1+x_2+x_3)
J = ideal(x_1-x_2,x_1-x_3)
S3 = {matrix{{x_2,x_3,x_1}},
matrix{{x_2,x_1,x_3}},
matrix{{x_1,x_2,x_3}} }
A = action(I,S3)
B = action(J,S3)
a = character(A,1)
b = character(B,1)
a ++ b
K = ideal(x_1,x_2,x_3)
C = action(K,S3)
c = character(C,1)
a ++ b === c
Node
Key
dual
(dual,Character,RingMap)
(dual,Character,List)
Headline
dual character
Usage
dual(c,conj)
dual(c,perm)
Inputs
c:Character
of a finite group action
conj:RingMap
conjugation in coefficient field
perm:List
permutation of conjugacy classes
Outputs
:Character
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the dual of a character, i.e., the character
of the dual or contragredient representation.
The first argument is the original character.
Assuming the polynomial ring over which the character
is defined has a coefficient field @TT "F"@ which is a subfield
of the complex numbers, then the second argument is the
restriction of complex conjugation to @TT "F"@.
As an example, we construct a character of the
alternating group $A_4$ considered as a subgroup of the
symmetric group $S_4$. The conjugacy classes are
represented by the identity, and the permutations
$(12)(34)$, $(123)$, and $(132)$, in cycle notation.
The character is constructed over the field $\mathbb{Q}[w]$,
where $w$ is a primitive third root of unity.
Complex conjugation restricts to $\mathbb{Q}[w]$
by sending $w$ to $w^2$. The character is concentrated
in homological degree 1, and internal degree 2.
Example
F = toField(QQ[w]/ideal(1+w+w^2))
R = F[x_1..x_4]
conj = map(F,F,{w^2})
X = character(R,4,hashTable {(1,{2}) => matrix{{1,1,w,w^2}}})
X' = dual(X,conj)
Text
If working over coefficient fields of positive characteristic
or if one wishes to avoid defining conjugation, one may replace
the second argument by a list containing a permutation
$\pi$ of the integers $1,\dots,r$, where
$r$ is the number of conjugacy classes of the group.
The permutation $\pi$ is defined as follows:
if $g$ is an element of the $j$-th conjugacy class,
then $g^{-1}$ is an element of the $\pi (j)$-th class.
In the case of $A_4$, the identity and $(12)(34)$ are
their own inverses, while $(123)^{-1} = (132)$.
Therefore the permutation $\pi$ is the transposition
exchanging 3 and 4. Hence the dual of the character in the
example above may also be constructed as follows,
with $\pi$ represented in one-line notation by a list passed
as the second argument.
Example
perm = {1,2,4,3}
dual(X,perm) === X'
Text
The page @TO characterTable@ contains some motivation
for using conjugation or permutations of conjugacy
classes when dealing with characters.
SeeAlso
characterTable
Node
Key
inverseRingActors
(inverseRingActors,Action)
Headline
get inverse of action on ring generators
Usage
inverseRingActors(A)
Inputs
A:Action
Outputs
G:List
of group elements
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns a @TO List@ of group elements
acting on the vector space spanned by the variables
of the polynomial ring associated with the object
acted upon.
These are the inverses of the elements originally
defined by the user when constructing the action.
By default, these elements are
expressed as one-row substitution matrices as those
accepted by @TO substitute@. One may obtain these elements
as square matrices by setting the optional input @TO Sub@
to @TT "false"@.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
Labels
labels
[characterTable, Labels]
Headline
custom labels for irreducible characters
Description
Text
This optional input is used with the method
@TO characterTable@ provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
By default, irreducible characters in a character table
are labeled as @TT "X0, X1, ..."@, etc.
The user may pass custom labels in a list using
this option.
The next example sets up the character table of
the dihedral group $D_4$, generated by an order 4 rotation $r$
and an order 2 reflection $s$ with the relation $srs=r^3$.
The representatives of the conjugacy classes are, in order:
the identity, $r^2$, $r$, $s$, and $rs$.
Besides the trivial representation, $D_4$ has three irreducible
one-dimensional representations, corresponding to the three normal
subgroups of index two: $\langle r\rangle$, $\langle r^,,s\rangle$,
and $\langle r^2,rs\rangle$. The characters of these representations
send the elements of the corresponding subgroup to 1, and the other
elements to -1. We denote those characters @TT "rho1,rho2,rho3"@.
Finally, there is a unique irreducible representation of dimension 2.
Example
R = QQ[x,y]
D8 = { matrix{{x,y}},
matrix{{-x,-y}},
matrix{{-y,x}},
matrix{{x,-y}},
matrix{{y,x}} }
M = matrix {{1,1,1,1,1},
{1,1,1,-1,-1},
{1,1,-1,1,-1},
{1,1,-1,-1,1},
{2,-2,0,0,0}};
T = characterTable({1,1,2,2,2},M,R,{1,2,3,4,5},
Labels=>{"triv","rho1","rho2","rho3","dim2"})
Text
The same labels are automatically used when decomposing
characters against a labeled character table.
Example
A = action(R,D8)
c = character(A,0,8)
decomposeCharacter(c,T)
Text
The labels are stored in the character table under the
key @TT "labels"@.
SeeAlso
characterTable
decomposeCharacter
Node
Key
(net,Action)
Headline
format for printing, as a net
Description
Text
Format objects of type @TO Action@ for printing.
See @TO net@ for more information.
Node
Key
(net,Character)
Headline
format for printing, as a net
Description
Text
Format objects of type @TO Character@ for printing.
See @TO net@ for more information.
Node
Key
(net,CharacterTable)
Headline
format for printing, as a net
Description
Text
Format objects of type @TO CharacterTable@ for printing.
See @TO net@ for more information.
Node
Key
(net,CharacterDecomposition)
Headline
format for printing, as a net
Description
Text
Format objects of type @TO CharacterDecomposition@ for printing.
See @TO net@ for more information.
Node
Key
numActors
(numActors,Action)
Headline
number of acting elements
Usage
numActors(A)
Inputs
A:Action
Outputs
:ZZ
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the number of group elements passed by the user
when defining the given action.
This number is not necessarily the order of the acting
group because in order to compute characters it is
enough to work with a representative of each conjugacy
class of the group.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
(ring,Action)
Headline
get ring of object acted upon
Usage
ring(A)
Inputs
A:Action
Outputs
:PolynomialRing
associated with the object acted upon
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the polynomial ring associated with the object
being acted upon.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
ringActors
(ringActors,Action)
Headline
get action on ring generators
Usage
ringActors(A)
Inputs
A:Action
Outputs
G:List
of group elements
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns a @TO List@ of group elements
acting on the vector space spanned by the variables
of the polynomial ring associated with the object
acted upon.
These are the same elements originally defined by
the user when constructing the action.
By default, these elements are
expressed as one-row substitution matrices as those
accepted by @TO substitute@. One may obtain these elements
as square matrices by setting the optional input @TO Sub@
to @TT "false"@.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
Sub
[action, Sub]
[ringActors, Sub]
[inverseRingActors, Sub]
Headline
format ring actors as one-row substitution matrices
Description
Text
This optional input is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
By default, the group elements acting on a ring are
passed as one-row substitution matrices as those
accepted by @TO substitute@. Setting @TT "Sub=>false"@
allows the user to pass these elements as square
matrices.
The example below sets up the action of a symmetric
group on the resolution of a monomial ideal.
The symmetric group acts by permuting the four
variables of the ring. The conjugacy classes of
permutations are determined by their cycle types,
which are in bijection with partitions. In this case,
we consider five permutations with cycle types,
in order: 4, 31, 22, 211, 1111.
For simplicity, we construct these matrices
by permuting columns of the identity.
Example
R = QQ[x_1..x_4]
I = ideal apply(subsets(gens R,2),product)
RI = res I
G = { (id_(R^4))_{1,2,3,0},
(id_(R^4))_{1,2,0,3},
(id_(R^4))_{1,0,3,2},
(id_(R^4))_{1,0,2,3},
id_(R^4) }
A = action(RI,G,Sub=>false)
Text
Similarly, setting @TT "Sub=>false"@
causes @TO ringActors@ and @TO inverseRingActors@
to return the group elements acting on the ring as
square matrices. With the default setting
@TT "Sub=>true"@, the same elements are returned as
one-row substitution matrices.
Example
ringActors(A,Sub=>false)
inverseRingActors(A,Sub=>false)
ringActors(A)
inverseRingActors(A)
Node
Key
symmetricGroupActors
(symmetricGroupActors,PolynomialRing)
Headline
permutation action of the symmetric group
Usage
symmetricGroupActors(R)
Inputs
R:PolynomialRing
Outputs
:List
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns a list of of matrices, each representing an
element of the symmetric group permuting the variables
of the polynomial ring in the input. This simplifies
the setup for symmetric group actions with the
@TO action@ command.
The output list
contains one element for each conjugacy class of
the symmetric group. The conjugacy classes are
determined by their cycle type and are in bijection
with the partitions of $n$, where $n$ is the
number of variables. Therefore the first element
of the list will always be a cycle of length $n$,
and the last element will be the identity.
Example
R=QQ[x_1..x_4]
symmetricGroupActors(R)
partitions 4
SeeAlso
"BettiCharacters Example 1"
"BettiCharacters Example 2"
Node
Key
symmetricGroupTable
(symmetricGroupTable,PolynomialRing)
Headline
character table of the symmetric group
Usage
symmetricGroupTable(R)
Inputs
R:PolynomialRing
Outputs
:CharacterTable
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the character table of the symmetric group
$S_n$, where $n$ is the number of variables of the
polynomial ring in the input. The irreducible
characters are indexed by the partitions of $n$ written
using a compact notation where an exponent indicates
how many times a part is repeated. The computation uses
the recursive Murnaghan-Nakayama formula.
Example
R=QQ[x_1..x_4]
symmetricGroupTable(R)
SeeAlso
"BettiCharacters Example 1"
"BettiCharacters Example 2"
Node
Key
(target,Action)
Headline
get object acted upon
Usage
target(A)
Inputs
A:Action
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the object being acted upon.
Depending on the action, this object may be a
@TO ChainComplex@, a @TO PolynomialRing@, a
@TO QuotientRing@, an @TO Ideal@, or a @TO Module@.
SeeAlso
action
Node
Key
(tensor,Character,Character)
(symbol **,Character,Character)
Headline
tensor product of characters
Usage
tensor(c1,c2)
Inputs
c1:Character
c2:Character
Outputs
:Character
Description
Text
This function is provided by the package
@TO BettiCharacters@.
Returns the tensor product of the input characters.
The operator @TT "**"@ may be used for the same purpose.
We construct the character of the coinvariant algebra
of the symmetric group on 3 variables.
Example
R = QQ[x,y,z]
I = ideal(x+y+z,x*y+x*z+y*z,x*y*z)
S3 = symmetricGroupActors R
A = action(R/I,S3)
a = character(A,0,3)
Text
The Gorenstein duality of this character may be
observed by tensoring with the character of the
sign representation concentrated in degree 3.
Example
sign = character(R,3, hashTable { (0,{3}) => matrix{{1,-1,1}} })
dual(a,{1,2,3}) ** sign === a
///
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Tests
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Test 0 (monomial ideal, symmetric group)
TEST ///
clearAll
R = QQ[x,y,z]
I = ideal(x*y,x*z,y*z)
RI = res I
S3 = {matrix{{y,z,x}},matrix{{y,x,z}},matrix{{x,y,z}}}
assert(S3 == symmetricGroupActors(R))
A = action(RI,S3)
a = character(R,3,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1}}),
((1,{2}), matrix{{0,1,3}}),
((2,{3}), matrix{{-1,0,2}})
})
assert((character A) === a)
B = action(R,S3)
b = character(R,3,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1}}),
((0,{1}), matrix{{0,1,3}}),
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,2,6}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{1,2,10}})
})
assert(character(B,0,3) === b)
C = action(I,S3)
c = character(R,3,hashTable {
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,1,3}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{1,1,7}})
})
assert(character(C,0,3) === c)
D = action(R/I,S3)
d = character(R,3,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1}}),
((0,{1}), matrix{{0,1,3}}),
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,1,3}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{0,1,3}})
})
assert(character(D,0,3) === d)
assert(b === c++d)
cS3 = symmetricGroupTable(R)
assert( cS3.table ==
matrix{{1_R,1,1},{-1,0,2},{1,-1,1}})
adec = a/cS3
assert( set keys adec.decompose ===
set {(0,{0}),(1,{2}),(2,{3})})
assert( adec.decompose#(0,{0}) == matrix{{1_R,0,0}})
assert( adec.decompose#(1,{2}) == matrix{{1_R,1,0}})
assert( adec.decompose#(2,{3}) == matrix{{0,1_R,0}})
ddec = d/cS3
assert( set keys ddec.decompose ===
set {(0,{0}),(0,{1}),(0,{2}),(0,{3})})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{0}) == matrix{{1_R,0,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{1}) == matrix{{1_R,1,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{2}) == matrix{{1_R,1,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{3}) == matrix{{1_R,1,0}})
///
-- Test 1 (non-monomial ideal, symmetric group)
TEST ///
clearAll
R = QQ[x_1..x_5]
I = ideal(
(x_1-x_4)*(x_2-x_5),
(x_1-x_3)*(x_2-x_5),
(x_1-x_3)*(x_2-x_4),
(x_1-x_2)*(x_3-x_5),
(x_1-x_2)*(x_3-x_4)
)
RI = res I
S5 = for p in partitions(5) list (
L := gens R;
g := for u in p list (
l := take(L,u);
L = drop(L,u);
rotate(1,l)
);
matrix { flatten g }
)
assert(S5 == symmetricGroupActors(R))
A = action(RI,S5)
a = character(R,7,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1,1,1,1,1}}),
((1,{2}), matrix{{0,-1,1,-1,1,1,5}}),
((2,{3}), matrix{{0,1,-1,-1,1,-1,5}}),
((3,{5}), matrix{{1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,1}})
})
assert((character A) === a)
B = action(R,S5)
b = character(R,7,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1,1,1,1,1}}),
((0,{1}), matrix{{0,1,0,2,1,3,5}}),
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,1,1,3,3,7,15}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{0,1,1,5,3,13,35}})
})
assert(character(B,0,3) === b)
C = action(I,S5)
c = character(R,7,hashTable {
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,-1,1,-1,1,1,5}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{0,-2,1,-1,0,4,20}})
})
assert(character(C,0,3) === c)
D = action(R/I,S5)
d = character(R,7,hashTable {
((0,{0}), matrix{{1,1,1,1,1,1,1}}),
((0,{1}), matrix{{0,1,0,2,1,3,5}}),
((0,{2}), matrix{{0,2,0,4,2,6,10}}),
((0,{3}), matrix{{0,3,0,6,3,9,15}})
})
assert(character(D,0,3) === d)
assert(b === c++d)
cS5 = symmetricGroupTable(R)
assert( cS5.table ==
matrix{{1_R,1,1,1,1,1,1},
{-1,0,-1,1,0,2,4},
{0,-1,1,-1,1,1,5},
{1,0,0,0,-2,0,6},
{0,1,-1,-1,1,-1,5},
{-1,0,1,1,0,-2,4},
{1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,1}}
)
adec = a/cS5
assert( set keys adec.decompose ===
set {(0,{0}),(1,{2}),(2,{3}),(3,{5})})
assert( adec.decompose#(0,{0}) == matrix{{1_R,0,0,0,0,0,0}})
assert( adec.decompose#(1,{2}) == matrix{{0,0,1_R,0,0,0,0}})
assert( adec.decompose#(2,{3}) == matrix{{0,0,0,0,1_R,0,0}})
assert( adec.decompose#(3,{5}) == matrix{{0,0,0,0,0,0,1_R}})
ddec = d/cS5
assert( set keys ddec.decompose ===
set {(0,{0}),(0,{1}),(0,{2}),(0,{3})})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{0}) == matrix{{1_R,0,0,0,0,0,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{1}) == matrix{{1_R,1,0,0,0,0,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{2}) == matrix{{2_R,2,0,0,0,0,0}})
assert( ddec.decompose#(0,{3}) == matrix{{3_R,3,0,0,0,0,0}})
///
-- Test 3 (non symmetric group, tests actors)
TEST ///
clearAll
kk = toField(QQ[w]/ideal(sum apply(5,i->w^i)))
R = kk[x,y]
D5 = {
matrix{{x,y}},
matrix{{w*x,w^4*y}},
matrix{{w^2*x,w^3*y}},
matrix{{y,x}}
}
A = action(R,D5)
a = {
map(R^{4:-3},R^{4:-3},{{1,0,0,0},{0,1,0,0},{0,0,1,0},{0,0,0,1}}),
map(R^{4:-3},R^{4:-3},{{w^3,0,0,0},{0,w,0,0},{0,0,w^4,0},{0,0,0,w^2}}),
map(R^{4:-3},R^{4:-3},{{w,0,0,0},{0,w^2,0,0},{0,0,w^3,0},{0,0,0,w^4}}),
map(R^{4:-3},R^{4:-3},{{0,0,0,1},{0,0,1,0},{0,1,0,0},{1,0,0,0}})
}
assert(actors(A,3) === a)
ca = character(R,4, hashTable {((0,{3}), matrix{apply(a,trace)})})
assert(character(A,3) === ca)
d1=map(R^1,R^{4:-3},{{x^3,x^2*y,x*y^2,y^3}})
d2=map(R^{4:-3},R^{3:-4},{{-y,0,0},{x,-y,0},{0,x,-y},{0,0,x}})
Rm=chainComplex(d1,d2)
B = action(Rm,D5)
assert(actors(B,1) === a)
cb1 = character(R,4, hashTable {((1,{3}), matrix{apply(a,trace)})})
assert(character(B,1) === cb1)
b = {
map(R^{3:-4},R^{3:-4},{{1,0,0},{0,1,0},{0,0,1}}),
map(R^{3:-4},R^{3:-4},{{w^2,0,0},{0,1,0},{0,0,w^3}}),
map(R^{3:-4},R^{3:-4},{{w^4,0,0},{0,1,0},{0,0,w}}),
map(R^{3:-4},R^{3:-4},{{0,0,-1},{0,-1,0},{-1,0,0}})
}
assert(actors(B,2) === b)
cb2 = character(R,4, hashTable {((2,{4}), matrix{apply(b,trace)})})
assert(character(B,2) === cb2)
///
end