Description
A Polyhedron represents a rational polyhedron. It can be bounded or unbounded, need not be full dimensional or may contain a proper affine subspace. It can be empty or zero dimensional. It is saved as a hash table which contains the vertices, generating rays, and the basis of the lineality space of the Polyhedron as well as the defining affine halfspaces and hyperplanes. The output of a Polyhedron looks like this:
i1 : convexHull(matrix {{0,0,1,1},{2,2,1,1},{0,0,0,0}},matrix {{1},{0},{0}})
o1 = {ambient dimension => 3 }
dimension of lineality space => 0
dimension of polyhedron => 2
number of facets => 5
number of rays => 1
number of vertices => 4
o1 : Polyhedron

This table displays a short summary of the properties of the Polyhedron. Note that the number of rays and vertices are modulo the lineality space. So for example a line in QQ^2 has one vertex and no rays. However, one can not access the above information directly, because this is just a virtual hash table generated for the output. The data defining a Polyhedron is extracted by the functions included in this package. A Polyhedron can be constructed as the convex hull (
convexHull) of a set of points and a set of rays or as the intersection (
intersection) of a set of affine halfspaces and affine hyperplanes.
For example, consider the square and the square with an emerging ray for the convex hull:
i2 : V = matrix {{1,1,1,1},{1,1,1,1}}
o2 =  1 1 1 1 
 1 1 1 1 
2 4
o2 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i3 : convexHull V
o3 = {ambient dimension => 2 }
dimension of lineality space => 0
dimension of polyhedron => 2
number of facets => 4
number of rays => 0
number of vertices => 4
o3 : Polyhedron

i4 : R = matrix {{1},{1}}
o4 =  1 
 1 
2 1
o4 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i5 : convexHull(V,R)
o5 = {ambient dimension => 2 }
dimension of lineality space => 0
dimension of polyhedron => 2
number of facets => 4
number of rays => 1
number of vertices => 3
o5 : Polyhedron

If we take the intersection of the halfspaces defined by the directions of the vertices and 1 we get the crosspolytope:
i6 : HS = transpose V
o6 =  1 1 
 1 1 
 1 1 
 1 1 
4 2
o6 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i7 : v = R  R
o7 =  1 
 1 
 1 
 1 
4 1
o7 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i8 : P = intersection(HS,v)
o8 = {ambient dimension => 2 }
dimension of lineality space => 0
dimension of polyhedron => 2
number of facets => 4
number of rays => 0
number of vertices => 4
o8 : Polyhedron

i9 : vertices P
o9 =  1 1 0 0 
 0 0 1 1 
2 4
o9 : Matrix QQ < QQ

This can for example be embedded in 3space on height 1:
i10 : HS = HS  matrix {{0},{0},{0},{0}}
o10 =  1 1 0 
 1 1 0 
 1 1 0 
 1 1 0 
4 3
o10 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i11 : HP = matrix {{0,0,1}}
o11 =  0 0 1 
1 3
o11 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i12 : w = matrix {{1}}
o12 =  1 
1 1
o12 : Matrix ZZ < ZZ

i13 : P = intersection(HS,v,HP,w)
o13 = {ambient dimension => 3 }
dimension of lineality space => 0
dimension of polyhedron => 2
number of facets => 4
number of rays => 0
number of vertices => 4
o13 : Polyhedron

i14 : vertices P
o14 =  1 1 0 0 
 0 0 1 1 
 1 1 1 1 
3 4
o14 : Matrix QQ < QQ

See also
Working with polyhedra.